INJUSTICES AND CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS: DIGITAL PRIMARY SOURCES DOCUMENTED IN MEMORY OF WOMEN AND GIRLS LYNCHED IN AMERICA


“Impossible is Nothing”

Muhammad Ali

The purpose of this blog, is to create a digital collection of primary sources, for those researching unjust acts perpetrated against women in today’s society, to show relevance to the history of abuses against women, specifically,  women and girls who were lynched in Southern states in America.

The barriers present in today’s society due to the legacy of slavery are school to prison pipelines, mass incarceration, and disparities in earned income and decent housing for African-Americans.

Before these problems can be effectively addressed, as citizens of this great country, we must end the war on race that we fight among ourselves and begin to treat each other more humanely.

To accomplish this, it will take all Americans, on a daily basis, practicing tolerance and expressing love and kindness towards those who do not look like us, those who do not live in our neighborhoods, or have the same religious beliefs as we do, to create an atmosphere of peace among all of mankind in this country.

Lynching

b&w film copy neg.

“Crowd of people, with shadow of man hanging from tree superimposed over them.”

Library of Congress

While the act of lynching-hanging from a tree, is no longer an act that is prevalent in our country this society,  as a majority, women continue to be subjected to social stigmas that by large considers them unequal to men when competing for jobs considered “man’s work.”

In America, examples of inequality can be discerned by evaluating the small percentage of women elected into politics at the national level, and in surveying statistics that document salaries that women are paid in comparison to their male counterparts, who work in the same executive position.

In homes across this country, and especially here in South Carolina, women continue to experience and die from acts of domestic violence at alarming rates. In the media the bodies and character of black women who are accomplished world athletes, Harvard graduates, and respected mothers and wives in their communities are often more vilified than celebrated and are described using insulting stereotypes that defined the slave era and Jim Crow.

To aid women in receiving equal pay for equal work, “On January 29, 2009, President Obama signed his first piece of legislation to foster definitive changes: the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act.”

https://www.whitehouse.gov/equal-pay/career

And while inequalities in pay and the exploitation of women are issues in America, those issues are compounded for women in other countries where girls are denied an education,or they can’t afford to go to school, and the act of exploiting and discriminating against them have greater consequences for their families and the communities and n which they live.

“Countries with the lowest standards of living and the highest rates of illiteracy are usually countries that do not educate their girls. Left unchecked, these inequalities in education will perpetuate violence, poverty and instability and will keep nations from achieving economic, political and social progress” Ambassador Melanne Verveer.

As displayed throughout history, it is through individual and group activism, and the making and enforcing laws that hold accountable those who commit acts against women and girls that disenfranchise, exploit, enslave, and butcher them, that change will come.

Anti-Lynching Bill

Mencken, lynching and civilization. Henry Mencken, author of note, testifies at the Senate Judiciary sub-committee hearing on the Anti-Lynching bill that

“Mencken, lynching and civilization. Henry Mencken, author of note, testifies at the Senate Judiciary sub-committee hearing on the Anti-Lynching bill that “no civilized country can condone lynching.” 2/14/35″

Library of Congress

While Lynching has been outlawed in America, acts of racial violence against African-Americans within their communities is still a problem, and women and girls are not excluded.

I want to use my art as a platform to advocate for the empowerment of women and girls worldwide through education.

Women activists like First Lady Mrs. Michelle Obama challenge governments in communities worldwide to pass laws that make it a legal right for girls to receive an education.

The education of girls is important to fostering a just society because throughout history, it has been women who have advocated most for women’s rights, and were the ones who took the lead in challenging injustices against African-Americans as a community of the underserved . This was especially relevant during the Civil Rights Movement.

However long before the Civil Rights Movement, Ida B. Wells risked her life, and took the lead in documenting cases of lynching.  She was a fierce advocate in exposing the hypocrisy around the accusations that black men were lynched because of alleged acts of rape against white women.

Doesn’t like lynchings. Rep. Carolina O’Day, D. of N.Y., giving a woman’s viewpoint to the hearings on the Anti-Lynching Bill before the Senate Judiciary sub-committee said “Women do not need nor want to be protected by such a barbarous practices.” 2/14

38361r

Library of Congress

 

digital file from original

“Ida B. Wells–I’d rather go down in history as one lone Negro who dared to tell the government that it had done a dastardly thing …”

Library of Congress

Dedication ceremonies--Ida B. Wells Homes ... parade along South Parkway ... Chicago Housing Authority

Library of Congress

Mary B Talbert Anti-Lynching

http://blackwomenandanti-lynching.weebly.com/

The Art in this blog was created to honor the memory of the many women and girls who were lynched on America’s soil, as well as the mothers of African-American males who were  sons, brothers and husbands, who were lynched in America.

This ongoing research and development of this database is dedicated to educating my readers about the many injustices committed against women and girls not only in America, but in countries around the world.

The legacy of  women like Ida B. Wells, and Mary Talbert, and others like them, continues through the work of women like Humanitarian  Zainab Salbi.  Listen to her story on youtube: Super Soul Sunday

“Super Soul Sunday” OWN Network.

http://www.oprah.com/video_embed.html?article_id=60878

Nobel Peace Prize winner Leymah Gbowee has two powerful stories to tell — of her own life’s transformation, and of the untapped potential of girls around the world. Can we transform the world by unlocking the greatness of girls?

Khalida Brohi: How I work to protect women from honor killings

Kakenya Ntaiya: A girl who demanded school

Women and Lynching in America

Between 1880 and 1910, close to 200 women were murdered by lynched mobs in the American South. Crystal N. Femister, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching”).

The Politics of Lynching

May make cash levy on lynching. These members of the Senate Judiciary Sub-committee considering the Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill may report our a piece of legislation calling for a levy of from $2,000 to $10,000 against a county in which a lynching occurs to be paid to relatives of the victim. From the left: Sen. Edward P. Costigan, D. of Colo.; Sen. Frederick Van Nuys, D. of Ind.; Sen. Joseph F. Guffy, D. of Pa., and Sen. William H. Dieterrich, D. of Ill. 2/14/35

May make cash levy on lynching. These members of the Senate Judiciary Sub-committee considering the Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill may report our a piece of legislation calling for a levy of from $2,000 to $10,000 against a county in which a lynching occurs to be paid to relatives of the victim. From the left: Sen. Edward P. Costigan, D. of Colo.; Sen. Frederick Van Nuys, D. of Ind.; Sen. Joseph F. Guffy, D. of Pa., and Sen. William H. Dieterrich, D. of Ill. 2/14/35

Library of Congress

Because this project is a work in process, there is no claim that the list of names in this Blog is one that includes all women or girls who were lynched in America between 1880 and 1910, as there were times when the names of individuals who had been lynched, or those suspected by family members as a result of an unexplained disappearance to had been lynched, were not always reported or investigated.

For students conducting research, it is important to note that Gross injustices against blacks such as lynchings did not occur only in the South, nor did protest marches which sought an end to injustices against blacks occur only in southern states.

Hate Crimes Begin with Expressed Prejudices

    [African American children on way to PS204, 82nd Street and 15th Avenue, pass mothers protesting the busing of children to achieve integration]

“African American children on way to PS204, 82nd Street and 15th Avenue, pass mothers protesting the busing of children to achieve integration 1965.”  New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection.

Library of Congress

Mrs. Claire Cumberbatch, of 1303 Dean St., leader of the Bedford-Stuyvesant group protesting alleged

‘Mrs. Claire Cumberbatch, of 1303 Dean St., leader of the Bedford-Stuyvesant group protesting alleged “segregated” school, leads oath of allegiance.”

Library of Congress

b&w film copy neg.

“Members of the NAACP New York City Youth Council picketing for anti-lynching legislation before the Strand Theater in Times Square 1937”

Library of Congress

digital file from b&w film copy neg.

‘Photograph shows Daniel Atwood, Parren Mitchell, and Mr. Bracy picketing in front of Ford’s Theater to protest racial segregation 1948″

Library of Congress

Blacks were not lynched exclusively in states in the South.

“Lynching was not a sectional crime, and while a majority of lynching’s happened in Southern and border states, not all lynching happened in the rural South.”  Lynchings also happened in Maryland, West Virgina, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kansas. Terrance Finnegan “A Deed So Accursed”

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/shipp/lynchstats.html

“The United States has a violent history of domestic violence. It is an ugly episode in our national history that has long been neglected.”  Of the several types of American violence, one type stands out as one of the most inhumane chapters of the history of the world? the violence committed against Negro citizens in America by white people.” Gibson.

Robert A. Gibson covers the period between 1880 to 1950 in which lynching is referred to as “The Negro Holocaust.”  A course entitled “The Negro Holocaust:Lynching and race Riots in the United States 1880 – 1950, is/was offered at Yale University.

http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/2/79.02.04.x.html 4/3/15

Why were the fears of whites so entrenched that they murdered blacks so inhumanely?  “To be sure, lynching activity resulted from a boiling cauldron of social tensions, not just political conflict, but in Mississippi, lynching incidents increased by a third in the ten years following the passage of the 1890 constitution as compared to the decade immediately prior.”Finnegan 73.

“In South Carolina, the situation was similar: lynching incidents increased by 25 percent in the fifteen years following the new constitution that had disfranchised blacks.” Terrance Finnegan, “A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and South Carolina” 73.

Considering the racial tensions during Reconstruction, it is reasonable to determine that some of the individuals that disappeared without warning had been lynched.  For this reason, there is no way to accurately tally and account for all of the people who were  lynched in America.

Civil Rights activist Unita Blackwell, the first African-American woman to be elected Mayor in the state of Mississippi, Mayersville, Mississippi, offers evidence of this fact.

During an interview for Rutherford Living History, Unita Blackwell talked about her life. In one part of the discussions, she spoke of her grandfather, whom she described as “part Indian and was  known to stand up to white folks.” She said that he went to work one day and he never returned home.  “We knew that they killed him…whites folks.” She said.

“Mississippi had the highest incidence of lynchings in the South as well the highest for the nation, with Georgia and Texas taking second and third places respectively.”  Lynching took place in all states he wrote, except for Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont.” (Gibson)

http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1979/2/79.02.04.x.html

When an individual is killed by a police officer who used excessive force, the act is often witnessed by other police officers called who are called to the scene for backup.  Like the case of Eric Gardner, during a lynching, the murder often happened in the presence of law enforcement officers who stood by and witnessed the crime.

http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/02/10/1363557/-Report-on-lynching-in-the-US-shows-historical-numbers-like-killings-by-police-are-underreported#

While the women memorialized in this blog were all lynched between 1880 and 1910; acts of violence against women in this country and in countries around the world have been an ongoing topic of concern.  In today’s society, black women are not being hung from trees, but they represent a significant portion of prison incarcerations.

“According to the Bureau of Justice statistics (B J S) the total female prison population in 2011 was 1,598,780.  The total number of women in prison in 2011 was 111,387. The total number of Black women in prison in 2011 was 26,000 or 23% of the total female prison population.  But, the rate of imprisonment for Black women was 129/1000 or 3% (this figure is .05% for White women).  The Black women’s rate is 6 times higher than for White women” ( Earl Smith ).

http://www.opednews.com/articles/African-American-Women-Bl-by-Earl-Smith-130320-231.html

These are the issues that will be discussed in this blog along with topics on genital mutilation, human trafficking, and the forced enslavement of women and children who are sexually abused, and those forced into to prostituting their bodies.

http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/story?id=1596778&page=1

In spite of the attention brought to the barbaric act of genital mutilation, this procedure is still being forced upon girls and young women.  For those who are unfamiliar with the subject or process of genital mutilation, it is explained in an article in “The Guardian,” at the site below.

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/may/16/what-is-female-genital-mutilation-circumcision-us 3/30/15

Articles will be highlighted on the injustices of women in other countries like the article about Farkhunda, a 27 year old woman in Kabul, Afghanistan was lynched by a mob on March 22, 2015 for allegedly burning a Koran.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/23/afghanistan-protests-woman-lynched_n_6923566.html

The art in this blog was created to be used as an educational tool to bring awareness to acts of violence against women in past times, and in our world today. It is my stance that many acts of violence that ended in the death of an individual, either by their own hands, or by the hands of a perpetrator, began with bullying tactics.

Mob violence was simply one small group, or massive group of fearful individuals who sought to calm their fears and insecurities by making others fearful of them. Bullying is a major topic of discussion in schools, in the work place, and it should be up for discussion in churches as well as a deterrent.

Those who bully have no boundaries. They do not respect the lives or the rights of others.    Emotional and physical abuse, murder, and suicide all result from the tactics of bullying.

Many in the world has been slaughtered as a result of a dictator system of law.  Hitler could be described by many names.  I would argue that a bully is one.  Like the victims of lynch mob violence, his victims were insanely tortured.

The concept of the Holocaust Museum, located in our nations capital, inspired me to try to emulate, on a smaller scale, their  concept of memorializing the lives of the women and girls who were murdered by the act of lynching on America’s soil.

Unlike the Holocaust Museum, which has a collection of actual photographs of individuals who were victims of genocide, there is no extensive collection of photos that can be searched and from it a substantial pool of photographs extracted for the use of a database of the victims.

http://www.ushmm.org/research/research-in-collections/overview/photo-archives

I am a self-taught artist who is ambitious and determined to create an online memorial of art, and later have the art housed in one location.

The art that I create is abstract and has been created in the spirit of being used in the absence of photographs, like those that line the walls of the Holocaust Museum.  I use my art as a personal declaration that the lives of the women and children who were lynched on America’s soil mattered to those who loved them, and it matters to me.

http://www.ushmm.org/

The art can be interchangeable, as far as the names are concerned.  I elected to make the art interchangeable and not dedicate one specific piece to any one individual because the art is created with the intent that it will be used to memorialize the death of the individuals collectively.

No attempt whatsoever has been made to try to depict their true features. The art is simply an offering of my condolence.  A majority of the pieces are colorful and unique in style, while others are drawings of pencil and charcoal.

Like the concept of the Holocaust Museum, I wish to preserve the memory of the victims of lynching through more than words alone.  I hope that the spirit of the women and girls will live on through my art, just as the memory of the holocaust victims are remembered through visiting the museum, and the viewing of their photographs and memorabilia.

It is important however to do more than just talk about past atrocities that happened to women.  Ongoing injustices that continue to disenfranchise, brutalize, murder and enslave women in America and abroad must be eliminated.

Likewise, it is important to express appreciation for those who work towards this effort.  A great example is Lawyers and Doctors Without Borders.

http://www.lawyerswithoutborders.org/Pages/Default.aspx

http://bloggersagainstsocialinjustice.blogspot.com/2013/04/top-7-ted-talks-on-human-trafficking.html

http://southcarolina.lostsoulsgenealogy.com/lynchings.htm

What are you doing to educate others about the many unjust conditions women and children in America and abroad are forced to live with and endure?  What effort are you personally making to  motivate change; change that would make this country, and our world, a more humane and lawfully just place to live within?

Eleanor Roosevelt, full-length portrait, standing at bottom of the Grand Staircase in the White House, facing left 1937.

Library of Congress

[Eleanor Roosevelt, full-length portrait, standing at bottom of the Grand Staircase in the White House, facing left]

“Letter, Eleanor Roosevelt to Walter White detailing the First Lady’s lobbing efforts for federal action against Lynching, 19 March 1936.”

https://i2.wp.com/memory.loc.gov/mss/mcc/015/0001.jpg

(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records)

Library of Congress

Lynching In Today’s Society

“Eyes Of The Rainbow – a documentary film with Assata Shakur”

b&w film copy neg.

“Demand withdrawal of civil rights program”

Library of Congress

Senator J. Howard McGrath (seated), Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, meeting with governors (l-r) Ben T. Laney, of Arkansas, R. Gregg Cherry, of North Carolina, William P. Lane, Jr., of Maryland, J. Strom Thurmond, of South Carolina, and B.H. Jester, of Texas, to “air their grievances against President Truman’s civil rights program. 1948”

Library of Congress


Angelina Emily Grimké (1805-1879)

Sarah Moore Grimké (1792-1873)

Angelina and Sarah Grimke: Abolitionist Sisters

Charleston, South Carolina

Before Emancipation “The Grimke sisters were among the first abolitionists to recognize the importance of women’s rights and to speak and write about the cause of female equality.”

http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/essays/angelina-and-sarah-grimke-abolitionist-sisters

http://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/grimke-sisters.htm

http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2010/septemberoctober/feature/gross-injustice

East African slaves aboard the Daphne, a British Royal Navy vessel

East African slaves aboard the Daphne, a British Royal Navy vessel involved in anti-slave trade activities in the Indian Ocean, 1868.

The National Archives of the UK

Filibuster against anti-lynching bill. Washington, D.C., Jan. 27. Members of the bloc of Southern Senators who have been filibusting against the anti-lynching bill for the last 20 days and are still going strong, left to right: Senator Tom Connaly, of Texas, Sen. Walter F. George, of Ga.; Sen. Richard Russell of Ga.; and Sen. Claude Pepper of Florida, 1/27/38

“Filibuster against anti-lynching bill. Washington, D.C., Jan. 27. Members of the bloc of Southern Senators who have been filibustering against the anti-lynching bill for the last 20 days and are still going strong, left to right: Senator Tom Connaly, of Texas, Sen. Walter F. George, of Ga.; Sen. Richard Russell of Ga.; and Sen. Claude Pepper of Florida, 1/27/38”

Library of Congress

In Memory of Women Lynched in Florida

b&w film copy neg.

“Related to NAACP investigation into the lynching of Claude Neal, at Marianna, Florida, 1934.”

Library of Congress

In Memory of Mamie Till Whose Son Emmett was Lynched in  Mississippi

“The Untold Story of Emmett Louis Till”

Women Lynched In Mississippi

When men were lynched, women became the sole supporter of their families. - Larger images available only at The Library of Congress

“J.P. Ivy, Negro timber cutter, was burned to death Sept. 25 by a mob of Union and Lee Counties … Ivy … denied having to do anything with the assault [on a white girl]”–photo caption 1920 – 1930.”

Library of Congress

[African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner]

“African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner.”

Library of Congress

[African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of  slain civil rights workers Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner]

African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner.

IN MEMORY OF WOMEN LYNCHED IN TENNESSEE

b&w film copy neg.

“Caucasian woman and African-American woman, protesting segregation, sitting side by side on stools at a Nashville, Tenn. lunch counter that has been roped off . 1960”

Library of Congress

b&w film copy neg.

Nashville police officer wielding nightstick holds African-American youth at bay during a civil rights march in Nashville, Tennessee 1964.  New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection

Library of Congress

In Memory of Women Lynched In Texas

Crowd of people gathered in street to watch the lynching of Jesse Washington, several men in tree appear to be securing chain or rope, Waco, Texas

b&w film copy neg.

Library of Congress

The fight to feel validated as a human being has been an ongoing process for African-Americans.

The fight, which has spanned hundreds of years and has taken on many forms, at one time in history resulted in African – Americans who were lynched by mobs of people who did not value their lives as fellow human beings.

b&w film copy neg.

NAACP youth and student members marching with signs protesting Texas segregation laws, Houston, Texas 1947″

Lynching Georgia 1940 – 1950

Group of African Americans marching near the Capitol Building in Washington, D. D. to protest the lynching of four African Americans in Georgia 1946.

[Group of African-Americans, marching near the Capitol building in Washington, D.C., to protest the lynching of four African-Americans in Georgia]

Library of Congress

The Struggles of Women and African-Americans

b&w film copy neg.

Library of Congress

1939-1961

“People marching with signs to protest segregation in education at the college and secondary levels”

b&w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-116817

“People marching with signs to protest segregation in education at the college and secondary levels 1947.”

Library of Congress

b&w film copy neg.

“Elmer Mosee, Daisy Lampkin, and Sidney R. Redmond, full-length portraits, holding signs protesting lynching”

Library of Congress

Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street in Montgomery, Alabama

Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street, Montgomery, Alabama

The site of a violent attack on participants in the 1961 Freedom Ride during the Civil Rights Movement. The mob of white protesters confronting the civil rights activists, “shocked the nation and lead the Kennedy Administration to side with civil rights protesters for the first time.” No longer used as a bus station, the building was saved from demolition and its façade has been restored.

Library of Congress

[African American demonstrators outside the White House, with signs

“African-American Demonstrators, outside the White House, with signs “We demand the right to vote everywhere,” and signs protesting police brutality against civil rights protestors in Selma Alabama 1965″

Library of Congress

https://i2.wp.com/cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c20000/3c27000/3c27600/3c27664_150px.jpg

“Sea of 30,000 civil rights demonstrators gathered outside the Alabama state capitol following their march from Selma to Montgomery 1965”

Library of Congress

https://i1.wp.com/cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c20000/3c27000/3c27700/3c27736_150px.jpg

“Mounted Dallas County possemen (policeman) stand by as an Alabama state trooper tries to get Negro woman to her feet after police used tear gas, clubs and ropes to break up a protest march yesterday outside Selma 1965”

Library of Congress

digital file from original item

“African-American boy holding protest sign in front of piles of signs on the ground at the March on Washington 1963.”

Library of Congress

[The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965]

Photograph shows some participants in the civil rights march sitting on a wall resting, one holds a placard which reads, “We march together, Catholics, Jews, Protestant, for dignity and brotherhood of all men under God, Now! 1965”

Library of Congress

https://i2.wp.com/cdn.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c20000/3c21000/3c21200/3c21286_150px.jpg

African-Americans kneel on sidewalk outside City Hall in Birmingham, Alabama protesting racial segregation

Library of Congress

Exact spot on Dexter Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, where Rosa Parks waited for the bus on that fateful day that turned the Civil Rights Movement into a raging human rights war

Exact spot on Dexter Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, where Rosa Parks waited for the bus on that fateful day that turned the Civil Rights Movement into a raging human rights war.

Library of Congress

Mothers Felt the Backlash of Injustices Through The Terror of Their Sons

The Scottsboro Boys

Understanding Powell v. Alabama

http://sixthamendment.org/understanding-powell-v-alabama/

The Trials of The Scottsboro Boys

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scottsboro/SB_acct.html 4/18/15

Four Little Girls

Uploaded for Educational Purposes Only

“Four Little Girls Killed in 1963 Birmingham Bombing Remembered”

Loretta Lynch, Born in Greensboro, North Carolina, was  Confirmed on Thursday, April 23, 2015, as the United States Attorney General. 

She replaced Attorney General Eric Holder.  She is the first African-American Woman to become Attorney General of the United States of America. 

In Memory of Women Lynched In Arkansas

Little Rock, 1959. Rally at state capitol

“Photograph showing a group of people, several holding signs and American flags, protesting the admission of the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School 1959.”

Library of Congress

Little Rock, 1959. Rally at state capitol

“Photograph shows a group of people, one holding a Confederate flag, surrounding speakers and National Guard, protesting the admission of the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School 1959.”

Library of Congress

“Police Officials Resigned After A Small Town In Missouri Elected It’s First Black Female Mayor”

Huffington Post

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/19/parma-police-resign-black-female-mayor_n_7097110.html

New York Daily News

http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/missouri-town-elects-black-mayor-5-6-cops-resign-report-article-1.2190915

“Luck – When opportunity meets preparation”

Oprah Winfrey

THE INFORMATION ON THIS SITE HAS BEEN RESEARCHED TO CREATE A DATABASE FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES.
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