From Charleston, South Carolina: Thank you President Obama and First Lady Mrs. Michelle Obama for Truly Loving the People of this Great Country

Expressing Appreciation for the Presidency of Barack Obama

By Terri Mae Owens

As an African American Woman, I could not be prouder of the way President Obama and First Lady Mrs.Michelle Obama lead this country from 2008- 2016, and during their final days in 2017.

Watching the President and First Lady love, and express kindness and concern for the general health and well being of the citizens of this country, as well as for people around the world, in spite of harsh criticisms and personal attacks on their humanity, has inspired me to live my life by their example of taking the high road.

They have inspired me to not be complacent in my position as a citizen of this country, but to find ways to reach out to others, especially those who do not look like me, by using my gifts and talents as a human being, a historian and as an artist, to inspire unity, and effect positive change that helps to strengthens race relations in our country.

America belongs to all of her citizens, and in spite of the racist rhetoric expressed during the campaigning of President Elect Donald Trump, I am encouraged by knowing that regardless of race or religious affiliation, as citizens of this great country, that there are more of us that are unified in fighting to protect for all citizens, the freedoms and rights we value and hold dear as citizens of this great country, than those who are divided.

I am Looking forward to seeing how the Obama family continue using their experience and influence to help build an even more perfect union.

         Sharing Memories of the Obama Family and their Administration

Thank you President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama for Coming to Charleston During Our Time of Enormous Grief

President Obama Eulogy: Clementa  Pinckney’s Furneral

Thanks Jenna and Barbara

for sharing your letter and these pictures:

People Magazine

“Love and Happiness:An Obama Celebration”

“Yes We Can: People Share Their Most Memorable Moments

From the Obama’s Presidency

President Obama Farewell Speech in Chicago

Mrs. Obama, Thank for the Example you Set of Character

When Women Attacked your Humanity


“Bryan Stevenson Builds Museum that Confronts Slavery, Lynching, Segregation, and Mass Incarceration in America”

Charlie Rose: Bryan Stevenson


I applaud Attorney and Activist Bryan Stevenson for his vision to build a museum that under one roof, will educate visitors about the history of inhumane acts inflicted upon Africans and African Americas under the institution of slavery, by mob lynching, Throughout the Civil Rights Movement, and the injustices of schools to prison pipelines, and mass incarceration of black males.

Stevenson uses his professional platform and influence to advocate for a more humane and just society. His activism in the courtroom and as a citizen of this country, is reflective of the heart and insight of men who came before him. Men like Gahndi, Mandela, Malcolm X,  and Martin Luther King Jr. who advocated for racial equality.


Charlie Rose: Equal Justice Initiative


Please contact the Equal Justice Initiative and donate funds to aid Mr. Stevenson in the building of a museum that will reveal the impact of the legacy of slavery on today’s society. Thank you!

Equal Justice Initiative
122 Commerce St.
Montgomery, Alabama 36104

Phone: 334-269-1803
Fax: 334-269-1806

I  too have similar, though not as grand ambitions, and I am inspired by the work Mr. Stevenson is doing.

While the work that I am doing is not in any way associated with Mr. Stevenson’s building of his museum,  in 2012 I began painting a collection of art that is dedicated to the memory of women and girls who were lynched on America’s soil.

The art is abstract in the sense that it was not created with the intention of projecting any likeness to any of the women or girls for which the collection is dedicated.

Checkout the site below, especially if conducting research  on lynching or if you are in need of  footage for a class presentation.

Without Sanctuary

Dylan Storm Roof A Plea of “Mercy” by Terri Mae Owens

“You Cannot Change the World By Doing What’s Convenient or Comfortable”

Bryan Stevenson

One Plea of “Mercy” for Dylan Storm Roof

When I read that the death penalty is being sought against Dylan Storm Roof, for the murders of the nine men and women whom he shot to death in Mother Emmanuel A. M. E. Church, a year ago this month, I felt a sense of sadness and remorse. My sadness however was not felt only for Dylan’s fate, but for the fate of race relations in a country that as Americans we love.

As much as we mourn the loss of lives that were taken in such a horrifically insane manner, taking the life of Dylan Roof, will not bring any one of them back.  In fact, to issue the death penalty would be expressive of the same barbaric disregard for human life that he showed towards parishioners who expressed only kindness towards him.

The deaths of the nine men and women of Emanuel grieved this entire nation, as well as people around the world. We here in South Carolina are presented with a great opportunity to continue the legacy of the Charleston Nine by not just professing to be a humane society, but by actually showing that we are.

I am an African American woman, a mother and a grandmother whose hope it is for a more kinder and just society for people of all races and ethnicities.  I am hopeful that one day skin color and religious belief or practice will not continue to divide us.

There is no question that what Mr. Roof did was wrong. However, as terrible of a thing that he has done, he is a member of a community of citizens called Americans. As Americans, we are connected by a shared history, and that history is in part founded upon the branding of the flesh of human beings to document them as property, as inventory, and not as people.

Because Mr. Roof grew up in a country whose foundation was built upon a blatant disrespect of human life, it seems ironic that a country whose history was established upon laws that made it legal to commit cruel and inhumane acts against human beings including children, for financial gain, would establish laws that would sentence an individual to die in a most inhumane manner because he committed a cruel and inhumane act against humans beings. The message that this type of reasoning sends is at its worst hypocritical, and at best conflicting.

Our forefathers owned human beings, and yet they established laws to govern our nation.  Laws that children are taught did not recognize African Americans as human beings, and certainly not equal to whites. It took a civil war just to grant them freedom and document their humanity.

Collectively as a people and a nation, we have journeyed to this point in our country’s history where a 21-year-old white male entered a church and assassinated nine people. The result of racism.  Racism was described by Toni Morrison, during an interview with Charlie Rose, as “Bereft.”

“The people who do this thing, who practice racism are bereft, there is something distorted about the psyche. It is a huge waste and it is a corruption and a distortion. It’s like it is a profound neurosis that nobody examines for what it is. It feels crazy, it is crazy, and it has as much of a deleterious effect on white people and possibly equal as it has on black people.” 

What has being a nation of people, whose history of race relations in this country, as exhibited through the Civil Rights movement, produced? It has produced confused citizens like Dylan Roof. How can we as a country not take responsibility for his brokenness and for ours? Laws punish, but they also protect. Dylan clearly shows signs of mental illness.

Dylan is one of America’s sons and we have failed him.  We are products of a history based on treating people like the “Other” and like they do not belong here in the United States of America, a country built by the free labor of slaves.

We must admit that we have, and in many cases continue to set bad examples of what a humane country looks like.  Our country’s stance on race was aired on television for all to see.  During the Civil Rights Movement African American men, women and children marched with signs in hand that read “I am a Man” “I am Somebody” “We Shall Not Be Moved” and were attacked by German Shepherd dogs, beaten with clubs, and sprayed with water from fire hoses, while Jim Crow Laws segregated even water fountains.

This is an opportunity for our country to begin doing a better job of teaching that what happened to African Americans and Native Americans in this country was wrong and that it should never be replicated, and when blatant acts of racism occur we must denounce them.

We can change race relations in this country by teaching America’s children to respect diversity, and to see all people first and foremost as human beings.

Yes, justice must be served against Dylan, but let’s not forget our history. A history that included the horror of lynching a human being and then setting the corpse on fire while children were in attendance having a picnic with their parents.

Dylan deserves to pay for his crimes, but must we kill him as if exterminating him is going to heal race relations in this country? It is my plea that Dylan Storm Roof not receive the death penalty, and that this country cease to use it as a method of punishment for crimes committed until America’s judicial system puts itself on trial for the enforcement of unjust laws that destroys people lives.  10/6/16

Capital punishment is immoral, and making an example of Dylan by sentencing him to death by the cruelest method of punishment imaginable will not deter repeated behavior of the same from happening.

Dylan Storm Roof and the Death Penaltyby Terri Mae Owens

I was happy to read that Dylan Roof’s attorney’s advised him to waive a jury trial.

“Pursuant to this order, the defendant hereby states that he is willing to waive jury, and to be tried and sentenced by the court,” the notice filed by Roof’s lawyers, David Bruck and Michael O’Connell, said.

It is my hope for Dylan, as it is for young African American boys and men in general who are ushered through our judicial and court systems that America’s governments take their share of responsibility for them being there in the first place, and hold themselves accountable for sentencing, reflective of society’s influence in regards to the acts of the accused.

Let Dylan’s fate lie upon the conscious of America’s political and judicial systems. Let the American people and people around the world see the level of responsibility we as a nation who stands united take for the racist acts being acted out in our country by American citizens.

Their has to be a solution, other than that of extermination of human beings, as though they were common pests, spraying over the problem is useless, because like roaches, they will come back if the problem of infestation is not eliminated at the root of the problem.

More than a jury’s verdict, people who may or may not be versed in the facts of the social and political history of this country, and realize it’s relevance to this case in way that they can judge the affects of its its influence upon American citizens, I want to hear the verdict of a judge.

I want the verdict to be one that is precedent for this judge, whom I hope will take this tragedy as an opportunity to sets an example that what happened to the nine people in Emanuel was unjust and should never happen by showing compassion for someone who is obviously in need of psychological help.

I want his decision to propel our country in the direction of providing care for the mentally ill, ending the death penalty in this country, and I would like to see as a result of this terrible tragedy, our state and federal governments and its administrations be held accountable, by the American people for the influence American History, as taught to America’s children, in America’s schools, have on our youth.

The real threat of terrorism to America comes from within our borders not outside of it.  We are our greatest enemy, and it is reflective in our laws, and in the way that we treat our fellow man.  It is reflective in how we show compassion, love and tolerance towards each other on a daily basis, not only after a mass murder takes place.




“Impossible is Nothing”

Muhammad Ali

The purpose of this blog, is to create a digital collection of primary sources, for those researching unjust acts perpetrated against women in today’s society, to show relevance to the history of abuses against women, specifically,  women and girls who were lynched in Southern states in America.

The barriers present in today’s society due to the legacy of slavery are school to prison pipelines, mass incarceration, and disparities in earned income and decent housing for African-Americans.

Before these problems can be effectively addressed, as citizens of this great country, we must end the war on race that we fight among ourselves and begin to treat each other more humanely.

To accomplish this, it will take all Americans, on a daily basis, practicing tolerance and expressing love and kindness towards those who do not look like us, those who do not live in our neighborhoods, or have the same religious beliefs as we do, to create an atmosphere of peace among all of mankind in this country.


b&w film copy neg.

“Crowd of people, with shadow of man hanging from tree superimposed over them.”

Library of Congress

While the act of lynching-hanging from a tree, is no longer an act that is prevalent in our country this society,  as a majority, women continue to be subjected to social stigmas that by large considers them unequal to men when competing for jobs considered “man’s work.”

In America, examples of inequality can be discerned by evaluating the small percentage of women elected into politics at the national level, and in surveying statistics that document salaries that women are paid in comparison to their male counterparts, who work in the same executive position.

In homes across this country, and especially here in South Carolina, women continue to experience and die from acts of domestic violence at alarming rates. In the media the bodies and character of black women who are accomplished world athletes, Harvard graduates, and respected mothers and wives in their communities are often more vilified than celebrated and are described using insulting stereotypes that defined the slave era and Jim Crow.

To aid women in receiving equal pay for equal work, “On January 29, 2009, President Obama signed his first piece of legislation to foster definitive changes: the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act.”

And while inequalities in pay and the exploitation of women are issues in America, those issues are compounded for women in other countries where girls are denied an education,or they can’t afford to go to school, and the act of exploiting and discriminating against them have greater consequences for their families and the communities and n which they live.

“Countries with the lowest standards of living and the highest rates of illiteracy are usually countries that do not educate their girls. Left unchecked, these inequalities in education will perpetuate violence, poverty and instability and will keep nations from achieving economic, political and social progress” Ambassador Melanne Verveer.

As displayed throughout history, it is through individual and group activism, and the making and enforcing laws that hold accountable those who commit acts against women and girls that disenfranchise, exploit, enslave, and butcher them, that change will come.

Anti-Lynching Bill

Mencken, lynching and civilization. Henry Mencken, author of note, testifies at the Senate Judiciary sub-committee hearing on the Anti-Lynching bill that

“Mencken, lynching and civilization. Henry Mencken, author of note, testifies at the Senate Judiciary sub-committee hearing on the Anti-Lynching bill that “no civilized country can condone lynching.” 2/14/35″

Library of Congress

While Lynching has been outlawed in America, acts of racial violence against African-Americans within their communities is still a problem, and women and girls are not excluded.

I want to use my art as a platform to advocate for the empowerment of women and girls worldwide through education.

Women activists like First Lady Mrs. Michelle Obama challenge governments in communities worldwide to pass laws that make it a legal right for girls to receive an education.

The education of girls is important to fostering a just society because throughout history, it has been women who have advocated most for women’s rights, and were the ones who took the lead in challenging injustices against African-Americans as a community of the underserved . This was especially relevant during the Civil Rights Movement.

However long before the Civil Rights Movement, Ida B. Wells risked her life, and took the lead in documenting cases of lynching.  She was a fierce advocate in exposing the hypocrisy around the accusations that black men were lynched because of alleged acts of rape against white women.

Doesn’t like lynchings. Rep. Carolina O’Day, D. of N.Y., giving a woman’s viewpoint to the hearings on the Anti-Lynching Bill before the Senate Judiciary sub-committee said “Women do not need nor want to be protected by such a barbarous practices.” 2/14


Library of Congress


digital file from original

“Ida B. Wells–I’d rather go down in history as one lone Negro who dared to tell the government that it had done a dastardly thing …”

Library of Congress

Dedication ceremonies--Ida B. Wells Homes ... parade along South Parkway ... Chicago Housing Authority

Library of Congress

Mary B Talbert Anti-Lynching

The Art in this blog was created to honor the memory of the many women and girls who were lynched on America’s soil, as well as the mothers of African-American males who were  sons, brothers and husbands, who were lynched in America.

This ongoing research and development of this database is dedicated to educating my readers about the many injustices committed against women and girls not only in America, but in countries around the world.

The legacy of  women like Ida B. Wells, and Mary Talbert, and others like them, continues through the work of women like Humanitarian  Zainab Salbi.  Listen to her story on youtube: Super Soul Sunday

“Super Soul Sunday” OWN Network.

Nobel Peace Prize winner Leymah Gbowee has two powerful stories to tell — of her own life’s transformation, and of the untapped potential of girls around the world. Can we transform the world by unlocking the greatness of girls?

Khalida Brohi: How I work to protect women from honor killings

Kakenya Ntaiya: A girl who demanded school

Women and Lynching in America

Between 1880 and 1910, close to 200 women were murdered by lynched mobs in the American South. Crystal N. Femister, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching”).

The Politics of Lynching

May make cash levy on lynching. These members of the Senate Judiciary Sub-committee considering the Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill may report our a piece of legislation calling for a levy of from $2,000 to $10,000 against a county in which a lynching occurs to be paid to relatives of the victim. From the left: Sen. Edward P. Costigan, D. of Colo.; Sen. Frederick Van Nuys, D. of Ind.; Sen. Joseph F. Guffy, D. of Pa., and Sen. William H. Dieterrich, D. of Ill. 2/14/35

May make cash levy on lynching. These members of the Senate Judiciary Sub-committee considering the Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill may report our a piece of legislation calling for a levy of from $2,000 to $10,000 against a county in which a lynching occurs to be paid to relatives of the victim. From the left: Sen. Edward P. Costigan, D. of Colo.; Sen. Frederick Van Nuys, D. of Ind.; Sen. Joseph F. Guffy, D. of Pa., and Sen. William H. Dieterrich, D. of Ill. 2/14/35

Library of Congress

Because this project is a work in process, there is no claim that the list of names in this Blog is one that includes all women or girls who were lynched in America between 1880 and 1910, as there were times when the names of individuals who had been lynched, or those suspected by family members as a result of an unexplained disappearance to had been lynched, were not always reported or investigated.

For students conducting research, it is important to note that Gross injustices against blacks such as lynchings did not occur only in the South, nor did protest marches which sought an end to injustices against blacks occur only in southern states.

Hate Crimes Begin with Expressed Prejudices

    [African American children on way to PS204, 82nd Street and 15th Avenue, pass mothers protesting the busing of children to achieve integration]

“African American children on way to PS204, 82nd Street and 15th Avenue, pass mothers protesting the busing of children to achieve integration 1965.”  New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection.

Library of Congress

Mrs. Claire Cumberbatch, of 1303 Dean St., leader of the Bedford-Stuyvesant group protesting alleged

‘Mrs. Claire Cumberbatch, of 1303 Dean St., leader of the Bedford-Stuyvesant group protesting alleged “segregated” school, leads oath of allegiance.”

Library of Congress

b&w film copy neg.

“Members of the NAACP New York City Youth Council picketing for anti-lynching legislation before the Strand Theater in Times Square 1937”

Library of Congress

digital file from b&w film copy neg.

‘Photograph shows Daniel Atwood, Parren Mitchell, and Mr. Bracy picketing in front of Ford’s Theater to protest racial segregation 1948″

Library of Congress

Blacks were not lynched exclusively in states in the South.

“Lynching was not a sectional crime, and while a majority of lynching’s happened in Southern and border states, not all lynching happened in the rural South.”  Lynchings also happened in Maryland, West Virgina, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kansas. Terrance Finnegan “A Deed So Accursed”

“The United States has a violent history of domestic violence. It is an ugly episode in our national history that has long been neglected.”  Of the several types of American violence, one type stands out as one of the most inhumane chapters of the history of the world? the violence committed against Negro citizens in America by white people.” Gibson.

Robert A. Gibson covers the period between 1880 to 1950 in which lynching is referred to as “The Negro Holocaust.”  A course entitled “The Negro Holocaust:Lynching and race Riots in the United States 1880 – 1950, is/was offered at Yale University. 4/3/15

Why were the fears of whites so entrenched that they murdered blacks so inhumanely?  “To be sure, lynching activity resulted from a boiling cauldron of social tensions, not just political conflict, but in Mississippi, lynching incidents increased by a third in the ten years following the passage of the 1890 constitution as compared to the decade immediately prior.”Finnegan 73.

“In South Carolina, the situation was similar: lynching incidents increased by 25 percent in the fifteen years following the new constitution that had disfranchised blacks.” Terrance Finnegan, “A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and South Carolina” 73.

Considering the racial tensions during Reconstruction, it is reasonable to determine that some of the individuals that disappeared without warning had been lynched.  For this reason, there is no way to accurately tally and account for all of the people who were  lynched in America.

Civil Rights activist Unita Blackwell, the first African-American woman to be elected Mayor in the state of Mississippi, Mayersville, Mississippi, offers evidence of this fact.

During an interview for Rutherford Living History, Unita Blackwell talked about her life. In one part of the discussions, she spoke of her grandfather, whom she described as “part Indian and was  known to stand up to white folks.” She said that he went to work one day and he never returned home.  “We knew that they killed him…whites folks.” She said.

“Mississippi had the highest incidence of lynchings in the South as well the highest for the nation, with Georgia and Texas taking second and third places respectively.”  Lynching took place in all states he wrote, except for Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont.” (Gibson)

When an individual is killed by a police officer who used excessive force, the act is often witnessed by other police officers called who are called to the scene for backup.  Like the case of Eric Gardner, during a lynching, the murder often happened in the presence of law enforcement officers who stood by and witnessed the crime.

While the women memorialized in this blog were all lynched between 1880 and 1910; acts of violence against women in this country and in countries around the world have been an ongoing topic of concern.  In today’s society, black women are not being hung from trees, but they represent a significant portion of prison incarcerations.

“According to the Bureau of Justice statistics (B J S) the total female prison population in 2011 was 1,598,780.  The total number of women in prison in 2011 was 111,387. The total number of Black women in prison in 2011 was 26,000 or 23% of the total female prison population.  But, the rate of imprisonment for Black women was 129/1000 or 3% (this figure is .05% for White women).  The Black women’s rate is 6 times higher than for White women” ( Earl Smith ).

These are the issues that will be discussed in this blog along with topics on genital mutilation, human trafficking, and the forced enslavement of women and children who are sexually abused, and those forced into to prostituting their bodies.

In spite of the attention brought to the barbaric act of genital mutilation, this procedure is still being forced upon girls and young women.  For those who are unfamiliar with the subject or process of genital mutilation, it is explained in an article in “The Guardian,” at the site below. 3/30/15

Articles will be highlighted on the injustices of women in other countries like the article about Farkhunda, a 27 year old woman in Kabul, Afghanistan was lynched by a mob on March 22, 2015 for allegedly burning a Koran.

The art in this blog was created to be used as an educational tool to bring awareness to acts of violence against women in past times, and in our world today. It is my stance that many acts of violence that ended in the death of an individual, either by their own hands, or by the hands of a perpetrator, began with bullying tactics.

Mob violence was simply one small group, or massive group of fearful individuals who sought to calm their fears and insecurities by making others fearful of them. Bullying is a major topic of discussion in schools, in the work place, and it should be up for discussion in churches as well as a deterrent.

Those who bully have no boundaries. They do not respect the lives or the rights of others.    Emotional and physical abuse, murder, and suicide all result from the tactics of bullying.

Many in the world has been slaughtered as a result of a dictator system of law.  Hitler could be described by many names.  I would argue that a bully is one.  Like the victims of lynch mob violence, his victims were insanely tortured.

The concept of the Holocaust Museum, located in our nations capital, inspired me to try to emulate, on a smaller scale, their  concept of memorializing the lives of the women and girls who were murdered by the act of lynching on America’s soil.

Unlike the Holocaust Museum, which has a collection of actual photographs of individuals who were victims of genocide, there is no extensive collection of photos that can be searched and from it a substantial pool of photographs extracted for the use of a database of the victims.

I am a self-taught artist who is ambitious and determined to create an online memorial of art, and later have the art housed in one location.

The art that I create is abstract and has been created in the spirit of being used in the absence of photographs, like those that line the walls of the Holocaust Museum.  I use my art as a personal declaration that the lives of the women and children who were lynched on America’s soil mattered to those who loved them, and it matters to me.

The art can be interchangeable, as far as the names are concerned.  I elected to make the art interchangeable and not dedicate one specific piece to any one individual because the art is created with the intent that it will be used to memorialize the death of the individuals collectively.

No attempt whatsoever has been made to try to depict their true features. The art is simply an offering of my condolence.  A majority of the pieces are colorful and unique in style, while others are drawings of pencil and charcoal.

Like the concept of the Holocaust Museum, I wish to preserve the memory of the victims of lynching through more than words alone.  I hope that the spirit of the women and girls will live on through my art, just as the memory of the holocaust victims are remembered through visiting the museum, and the viewing of their photographs and memorabilia.

It is important however to do more than just talk about past atrocities that happened to women.  Ongoing injustices that continue to disenfranchise, brutalize, murder and enslave women in America and abroad must be eliminated.

Likewise, it is important to express appreciation for those who work towards this effort.  A great example is Lawyers and Doctors Without Borders.

What are you doing to educate others about the many unjust conditions women and children in America and abroad are forced to live with and endure?  What effort are you personally making to  motivate change; change that would make this country, and our world, a more humane and lawfully just place to live within?

Eleanor Roosevelt, full-length portrait, standing at bottom of the Grand Staircase in the White House, facing left 1937.

Library of Congress

[Eleanor Roosevelt, full-length portrait, standing at bottom of the Grand Staircase in the White House, facing left]

“Letter, Eleanor Roosevelt to Walter White detailing the First Lady’s lobbing efforts for federal action against Lynching, 19 March 1936.”

(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records)

Library of Congress

Lynching In Today’s Society

“Eyes Of The Rainbow – a documentary film with Assata Shakur”

b&w film copy neg.

“Demand withdrawal of civil rights program”

Library of Congress

Senator J. Howard McGrath (seated), Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, meeting with governors (l-r) Ben T. Laney, of Arkansas, R. Gregg Cherry, of North Carolina, William P. Lane, Jr., of Maryland, J. Strom Thurmond, of South Carolina, and B.H. Jester, of Texas, to “air their grievances against President Truman’s civil rights program. 1948”

Library of Congress

Angelina Emily Grimké (1805-1879)

Sarah Moore Grimké (1792-1873)

Angelina and Sarah Grimke: Abolitionist Sisters

Charleston, South Carolina

Before Emancipation “The Grimke sisters were among the first abolitionists to recognize the importance of women’s rights and to speak and write about the cause of female equality.”

East African slaves aboard the Daphne, a British Royal Navy vessel

East African slaves aboard the Daphne, a British Royal Navy vessel involved in anti-slave trade activities in the Indian Ocean, 1868.

The National Archives of the UK

Filibuster against anti-lynching bill. Washington, D.C., Jan. 27. Members of the bloc of Southern Senators who have been filibusting against the anti-lynching bill for the last 20 days and are still going strong, left to right: Senator Tom Connaly, of Texas, Sen. Walter F. George, of Ga.; Sen. Richard Russell of Ga.; and Sen. Claude Pepper of Florida, 1/27/38

“Filibuster against anti-lynching bill. Washington, D.C., Jan. 27. Members of the bloc of Southern Senators who have been filibustering against the anti-lynching bill for the last 20 days and are still going strong, left to right: Senator Tom Connaly, of Texas, Sen. Walter F. George, of Ga.; Sen. Richard Russell of Ga.; and Sen. Claude Pepper of Florida, 1/27/38”

Library of Congress

In Memory of Women Lynched in Florida

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“Related to NAACP investigation into the lynching of Claude Neal, at Marianna, Florida, 1934.”

Library of Congress

In Memory of Mamie Till Whose Son Emmett was Lynched in  Mississippi

“The Untold Story of Emmett Louis Till”

Women Lynched In Mississippi

When men were lynched, women became the sole supporter of their families. - Larger images available only at The Library of Congress

“J.P. Ivy, Negro timber cutter, was burned to death Sept. 25 by a mob of Union and Lee Counties … Ivy … denied having to do anything with the assault [on a white girl]”–photo caption 1920 – 1930.”

Library of Congress

[African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner]

“African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner.”

Library of Congress

[African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of  slain civil rights workers Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner]

African American and white Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party supporters demonstrating outside the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey; some hold signs with portraits of slain civil rights workers Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner.


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“Caucasian woman and African-American woman, protesting segregation, sitting side by side on stools at a Nashville, Tenn. lunch counter that has been roped off . 1960”

Library of Congress

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Nashville police officer wielding nightstick holds African-American youth at bay during a civil rights march in Nashville, Tennessee 1964.  New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection

Library of Congress

In Memory of Women Lynched In Texas

Crowd of people gathered in street to watch the lynching of Jesse Washington, several men in tree appear to be securing chain or rope, Waco, Texas

b&w film copy neg.

Library of Congress

The fight to feel validated as a human being has been an ongoing process for African-Americans.

The fight, which has spanned hundreds of years and has taken on many forms, at one time in history resulted in African – Americans who were lynched by mobs of people who did not value their lives as fellow human beings.

b&w film copy neg.

NAACP youth and student members marching with signs protesting Texas segregation laws, Houston, Texas 1947″

Lynching Georgia 1940 – 1950

Group of African Americans marching near the Capitol Building in Washington, D. D. to protest the lynching of four African Americans in Georgia 1946.

[Group of African-Americans, marching near the Capitol building in Washington, D.C., to protest the lynching of four African-Americans in Georgia]

Library of Congress

The Struggles of Women and African-Americans

b&w film copy neg.

Library of Congress


“People marching with signs to protest segregation in education at the college and secondary levels”

b&w film copy neg. LC-USZ62-116817

“People marching with signs to protest segregation in education at the college and secondary levels 1947.”

Library of Congress

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“Elmer Mosee, Daisy Lampkin, and Sidney R. Redmond, full-length portraits, holding signs protesting lynching”

Library of Congress

Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street in Montgomery, Alabama

Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street, Montgomery, Alabama

The site of a violent attack on participants in the 1961 Freedom Ride during the Civil Rights Movement. The mob of white protesters confronting the civil rights activists, “shocked the nation and lead the Kennedy Administration to side with civil rights protesters for the first time.” No longer used as a bus station, the building was saved from demolition and its façade has been restored.

Library of Congress

[African American demonstrators outside the White House, with signs

“African-American Demonstrators, outside the White House, with signs “We demand the right to vote everywhere,” and signs protesting police brutality against civil rights protestors in Selma Alabama 1965″

Library of Congress

“Sea of 30,000 civil rights demonstrators gathered outside the Alabama state capitol following their march from Selma to Montgomery 1965”

Library of Congress

“Mounted Dallas County possemen (policeman) stand by as an Alabama state trooper tries to get Negro woman to her feet after police used tear gas, clubs and ropes to break up a protest march yesterday outside Selma 1965”

Library of Congress

digital file from original item

“African-American boy holding protest sign in front of piles of signs on the ground at the March on Washington 1963.”

Library of Congress

[The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965]

Photograph shows some participants in the civil rights march sitting on a wall resting, one holds a placard which reads, “We march together, Catholics, Jews, Protestant, for dignity and brotherhood of all men under God, Now! 1965”

Library of Congress

African-Americans kneel on sidewalk outside City Hall in Birmingham, Alabama protesting racial segregation

Library of Congress

Exact spot on Dexter Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, where Rosa Parks waited for the bus on that fateful day that turned the Civil Rights Movement into a raging human rights war

Exact spot on Dexter Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, where Rosa Parks waited for the bus on that fateful day that turned the Civil Rights Movement into a raging human rights war.

Library of Congress

Mothers Felt the Backlash of Injustices Through The Terror of Their Sons

The Scottsboro Boys

Understanding Powell v. Alabama

The Trials of The Scottsboro Boys 4/18/15

Four Little Girls

Uploaded for Educational Purposes Only

“Four Little Girls Killed in 1963 Birmingham Bombing Remembered”

Loretta Lynch, Born in Greensboro, North Carolina, was  Confirmed on Thursday, April 23, 2015, as the United States Attorney General. 

She replaced Attorney General Eric Holder.  She is the first African-American Woman to become Attorney General of the United States of America. 

In Memory of Women Lynched In Arkansas

Little Rock, 1959. Rally at state capitol

“Photograph showing a group of people, several holding signs and American flags, protesting the admission of the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School 1959.”

Library of Congress

Little Rock, 1959. Rally at state capitol

“Photograph shows a group of people, one holding a Confederate flag, surrounding speakers and National Guard, protesting the admission of the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School 1959.”

Library of Congress

“Police Officials Resigned After A Small Town In Missouri Elected It’s First Black Female Mayor”

Huffington Post

New York Daily News

“Luck – When opportunity meets preparation”

Oprah Winfrey


The Insane Murdering of African American Children

I remember being a little girl waiting for my Papa to come home from work at the Navy Yard, in Charleston, South Carolina.  I was about five years old.  I loved him so much and he loved me.  I thought of him when I read the story of Angel. I use to sit on the steps of our cottage and wait until I saw him coming a block away, and I would run to him.  He was very tall.  He would pick me up and kiss me and twirl me around and then I would take his metal lunch can to the house for him.

After he ate dinner and had time to sit for a minute and talk to momma, he would often take me around the corner to Mr. Singleton’s store to buy a gum ball, which I selected out of his gum ball machines.  Some were huge and the big gum balls cost 5 cents each. I always bought the purple gum balls.  It filled the cavity of my mouth and it left my tongue, lips and fingers blue.  that is what I thought about as tears rolled down my eyes reading about Angel’s fate.  My memory of buying gum with my Papa is a happy one.  Buying bubble gum will not be a pleasant memory for Angel’s father. 10/21/14

I am one who feels that choosing a child’s name is a great responsibility, and with little Angel now in heaven with God, I feel even more strongly about that.Angel is a beautiful name and how appropriate for when she gets her wings.

I can’t imagine what her father must be feeling.  He took his little girl to the store to buy bubble gum and she ended up dead.   Angel had been selected to participate in a gifted and talented program at her school.  Imagine the gifts and talents she would have contributed to change our world.  We are loosing our gifted and talented black youth, our babies, to senseless killings, like the senseless killing of 19 year old Renisha McBride.

Renisha knocked on the door of a white man in Detroit after being in a car accident, and she ended up dead from a gunshot wound to the back of her head as she was walking off the man’s porch.

Her killer said he was “afraid”.  He feared for his life.  But what causes makes him to be fearful of a young girl who was peacefully leaving his porch? And why not call the police to report a suspicious person in the neighborhood?  It happens too often that whites are killing blacks using the excuse that they feared for their life, and in doing so, have gotten away with murder, as in the Trayvon Martin Case.  Trayvon was 17 years old.  Rest In Peace Renisha.

This problem is not exclusive to America, and we should be concerned about our children no matter where they live.  African and African American children are being murdered around the world. 10/21/14

 In South Africa

The unthinkable murders of two girls toddlers in South Africa are an example.  They disappeared while playing outside in front of the house. “Their bodies raped, murdered, and found in a public toilet.”   It was reported that 15% of rape victims in south Africa are children under 11 years old.

In Chicago

Hadiya Pendleton 16 years old gunned down in a park in Chicago as she ran to take shelter.

Three Children Killed In Philadelphia While They Sold Fruit With Their Mother

Gentrification Displaces Black Residents in the City of Charleston, South Carolina

Gentrification Displaces Black Residents In the City of Charleston, South Carolina

I Was born in Charleston, South Carolina, and upon returning to Charleston in 2011,  I realized that the East side of town, which was predominantly black, is now occupied by a large percentage of white residents.,

I wondered what had happened to all of the black folks who owned or rented homes downtown.  Where do those displaced by whites now live?  Do they still live near the city?  Are they prospering and benefiting financially from the influx of tourism into the city, in ways other than working as housekeepers, bellmen, and servers in downtown hotels?

The look of downtown Charleston is totally different now since many of the homes have either been gutted and rebuilt, replaced by new construction, or renovated.  With structural upgrades, the fair market value of homes in areas once considered “poor and bad areas to live in,” or the ghetto, has increased with the presence of white residents, making it difficult for many blacks to continue to rent in the city, or to pay the higher taxes.

The City of Charleston has progressively grown in population and in the amount of businesses represented in the city.  Lower King Street has awakened from the dead with its streets lined with bars, restaurants, and the construction of the new hotels.  With the construction of new hotels on King street, businesses located on King Street will draw tourists who want the convenience of lodging in the heart of the city where the nightlife kicks off.

My question is, what is the percentage of blacks that have benefited from this economic growth? While the bold and vibrant colors painted on the renovated and newly constructed homes stand out as a proud representation of our community.  Do visitors to our city have the choice of patronizing a racially diverse group of business owners who represent the community?

People native to Charleston who drive down streets like Huger Street, where I once lived, near Stuart Street, or Reid, Lee, and America Streets are no doubt as amazed as I am to see that once dilapidated houses in those areas have gotten a face lift.  While driving on the cross-town, visitors to the city see the beautiful colors of the houses off Carolina Street which draws attention to that neighborhood in an inviting manner, and people are relocating to Charleston in large numbers.

Because of the influx of people moving here, blacks who once lived on the East side of town, in homes that are within walking distance to schools, the aquarium, and government organizations, appear less in number while the population of whites walking downtown to work and entertainment and riding their bikes along bike paths, has increased.

Whites are now the predominant occupants of neighborhoods that were once stereotyped as “bad areas” to live in and ones labeled unsafe for them to walk in alone, especially at night.  But now you see whites walking in those once stereotyped “bad areas” all the time…and at night!  Those neighborhoods are now apparently safer since black residents have been replaced by a majority white presence.

It is apparent that blacks are not prospering to a degree that they can afford to remain living in their neighborhoods once white people began to move in, and it appears that they are being pushed further North.  And blacks who have moved to the north area in locations that are considered run down and unsafe to travel by whites will be able to live in those areas until those neighborhoods are needed for the continued influx of new residents to Charleston.  It is already the case that white folks not able to live in the tightly meshed downtown area have begun to migrate North of the city.

I had hoped to see more integration in neighborhoods where blacks lived in the downtown area instead of gentrification.  There are black folks who had worked and lived downtown for the majority of their lives, and they still did not earn incomes comparable to whites on a large scale that afforded them the right to remain in those residences.

Because of income disparities, it places them in a position in which they can’t afford to remain in their neighborhoods with an influx of rents and taxes.  Unfortunately the growth that is taking place in Charleston is a story much like that of Harlem and the forced plight of blacks once Bill Clinton moved there.

The City of Charleston has grown into a City where more and more tourists are visiting from around the world, and that is an honor.  For the past three years the city has been the Conde Nast Traveler’s top tourist destination.  Not only is it an honor for the city, but for its mayor as well.   Mayor Riley is a fine person, but other than affordable housing for people relocating to this area, because many people who are from Charleston do not make enough to afford the affordable housing, the question remains.

Are black people being given an opportunity to earn a fair share of the economic pie?  Are black business owners given a fair opportunity to compete with white business owners?  Are they able to secure loans in which they can open businesses in key areas downtown where tourists frequent?

Other than Taxi Cab Drivers, what is the percentage of black owned businesses in the downtown area in view of tourist traffic?  How many bars are black owned?  How many hotels?  How many black owned restaurants are on East Bay Street?  How many black owned businesses are on Market Street?

It is unfortunate that blacks by large are not in a position to benefit financially through business ventures and the ownership of businesses in key geographical locations in the City of Charleston where an influx of tourism into the city produces wealth.  While there are a minority of blacks doing well financially in the City, blacks as a majority work minimum wage, or slightly above minimum wage type jobs.

Being the great historic city that Charleston is, it is unfortunate that little has changed over time when considering the distribution of wealth for blacks as compared to whites.  Is it the case that there a few blacks hand picked to represent the City, or is there a fair opportunity for inclusion?

I once drove a taxi in the City of Charleston and I would hear all the time how tourists love the people of Charleston.  As a woman native to Charleston, I was proud to hear that.  The people of Charleston are indeed accommodating, polite, hospitable, and most are genuine in their expressions of love towards people.

How do those compliments stack up in dollars and cents?  How do they stack up in earned income for blacks who clean, prep, cook, and sing songs for tourists in sweet shops to help keep the tourist industry booming?  I am referring to the service workers.  I would argue that it is their pictures that should be on the Carta Buses.  After all, they represent in greater numbers the cheap labor that keeps the streets clean, the horse manure scrapped up, and hotel lobbies sparkling.

It is the cheap labor provided by blacks educated in a school system in the South that provides just enough education to keep that labor pool of workers stocked and available for hire.  Good food, crisp linen, white towels and clean dishes and silverware.  That’s what tourists remember most about traveling.  And those services come from the back of the house.

This Blog was written with black folk in mind who are native to the City.  Those persons who have lived in Charleston their entire lives and have worked jobs that do not afford them the opportunity to eat in restaurants where they work let alone live downtown close to their jobs.