Dylan Storm Roof A Plea of “Mercy” by Terri Mae Owens


“You Cannot Change the World By Doing What’s Convenient or Comfortable”

Bryan Stevenson

One Plea of “Mercy” for Dylan Storm Roof

When I read that the death penalty is being sought against Dylan Storm Roof, for the murders of the nine men and women whom he shot to death in Mother Emmanuel A. M. E. Church, a year ago this month, I felt a sense of sadness and remorse. My sadness however was not felt only for Dylan’s fate, but for the fate of race relations in a country that as Americans we love.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2016/05/24/dylann-roof-death-penalty-justice-department/84871618/

As much as we mourn the loss of lives that were taken in such a horrifically insane manner, taking the life of Dylan Roof, will not bring any one of them back.  In fact, to issue the death penalty would be expressive of the same barbaric disregard for human life that he showed towards parishioners who expressed only kindness towards him.

The deaths of the nine men and women of Emanuel grieved this entire nation, as well as people around the world. We here in South Carolina are presented with a great opportunity to continue the legacy of the Charleston Nine by not just professing to be a humane society, but by actually showing that we are.

I am an African American woman, a mother and a grandmother whose hope it is for a more kinder and just society for people of all races and ethnicities.  I am hopeful that one day skin color and religious belief or practice will not continue to divide us.

There is no question that what Mr. Roof did was wrong. However, as terrible of a thing that he has done, he is a member of a community of citizens called Americans. As Americans, we are connected by a shared history, and that history is in part founded upon the branding of the flesh of human beings to document them as property, as inventory, and not as people.

Because Mr. Roof grew up in a country whose foundation was built upon a blatant disrespect of human life, it seems ironic that a country whose history was established upon laws that made it legal to commit cruel and inhumane acts against human beings including children, for financial gain, would establish laws that would sentence an individual to die in a most inhumane manner because he committed a cruel and inhumane act against humans beings. The message that this type of reasoning sends is at its worst hypocritical, and at best conflicting.

Our forefathers owned human beings, and yet they established laws to govern our nation.  Laws that children are taught did not recognize African Americans as human beings, and certainly not equal to whites. It took a civil war just to grant them freedom and document their humanity.

Collectively as a people and a nation, we have journeyed to this point in our country’s history where a 21-year-old white male entered a church and assassinated nine people. The result of racism.  Racism was described by Toni Morrison, during an interview with Charlie Rose, as “Bereft.”

“The people who do this thing, who practice racism are bereft, there is something distorted about the psyche. It is a huge waste and it is a corruption and a distortion. It’s like it is a profound neurosis that nobody examines for what it is. It feels crazy, it is crazy, and it has as much of a deleterious effect on white people and possibly equal as it has on black people.” 

What has being a nation of people, whose history of race relations in this country, as exhibited through the Civil Rights movement, produced? It has produced confused citizens like Dylan Roof. How can we as a country not take responsibility for his brokenness and for ours? Laws punish, but they also protect. Dylan clearly shows signs of mental illness.

Dylan is one of America’s sons and we have failed him.  We are products of a history based on treating people like the “Other” and like they do not belong here in the United States of America, a country built by the free labor of slaves.

We must admit that we have, and in many cases continue to set bad examples of what a humane country looks like.  Our country’s stance on race was aired on television for all to see.  During the Civil Rights Movement African American men, women and children marched with signs in hand that read “I am a Man” “I am Somebody” “We Shall Not Be Moved” and were attacked by German Shepherd dogs, beaten with clubs, and sprayed with water from fire hoses, while Jim Crow Laws segregated even water fountains.

This is an opportunity for our country to begin doing a better job of teaching that what happened to African Americans and Native Americans in this country was wrong and that it should never be replicated, and when blatant acts of racism occur we must denounce them.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/thank-you-trump-for-exposing-your-ugly-inner-self/2016/10/02/e7051490-8745-11e6-92c2-14b64f3d453f_story.html?utm_term=.34a98387d62a

We can change race relations in this country by teaching America’s children to respect diversity, and to see all people first and foremost as human beings.

http://www.usmagazine.com/celebrity-news/news/teachers-aide-fired-after-calling-michelle-obama-a-gorilla-w443276

Yes, justice must be served against Dylan, but let’s not forget our history. A history that included the horror of lynching a human being and then setting the corpse on fire while children were in attendance having a picnic with their parents.

https://books.google.com/books?id=O3ZldmMty7UC&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=lynching+african+americans+and+black+barbecues&source=bl&ots=p9gsYunGAG&sig=5unrle7LIgVNElhNRBfIju5VuJI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUq_zO0cXPAhXB7B4KHTQNDxAQ6AEIKjAC#v=onepage&q=lynching%20african%20americans%20and%20black%20barbecues&f=false/10/6/16

Dylan deserves to pay for his crimes, but must we kill him as if exterminating him is going to heal race relations in this country? It is my plea that Dylan Storm Roof not receive the death penalty, and that this country cease to use it as a method of punishment for crimes committed until America’s judicial system puts itself on trial for the enforcement of unjust laws that destroys people lives.

http://www.bayareadefenseattorney.com/criminal-defense-lawyer/aclu-strong-opposition-three-strikes-rule  10/6/16

Capital punishment is immoral, and making an example of Dylan by sentencing him to death by the cruelest method of punishment imaginable will not deter repeated behavior of the same from happening.

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Dylan Storm Roof and the Death Penaltyby Terri Mae Owens


I was happy to read that Dylan Roof’s attorney’s advised him to waive a jury trial.

“Pursuant to this order, the defendant hereby states that he is willing to waive jury, and to be tried and sentenced by the court,” the notice filed by Roof’s lawyers, David Bruck and Michael O’Connell, said.

http://christiandaily.com/article/suspect-of-charleston-church-shooting-waives-his-right-to-a-jury-trial/53094.htm

It is my hope for Dylan, as it is for young African American boys and men in general who are ushered through our judicial and court systems that America’s governments take their share of responsibility for them being there in the first place, and hold themselves accountable for sentencing, reflective of society’s influence in regards to the acts of the accused.

Let Dylan’s fate lie upon the conscious of America’s political and judicial systems. Let the American people and people around the world see the level of responsibility we as a nation who stands united take for the racist acts being acted out in our country by American citizens.

Their has to be a solution, other than that of extermination of human beings, as though they were common pests, spraying over the problem is useless, because like roaches, they will come back if the problem of infestation is not eliminated at the root of the problem.

More than a jury’s verdict, people who may or may not be versed in the facts of the social and political history of this country, and realize it’s relevance to this case in way that they can judge the affects of its its influence upon American citizens, I want to hear the verdict of a judge.

I want the verdict to be one that is precedent for this judge, whom I hope will take this tragedy as an opportunity to sets an example that what happened to the nine people in Emanuel was unjust and should never happen by showing compassion for someone who is obviously in need of psychological help.

I want his decision to propel our country in the direction of providing care for the mentally ill, ending the death penalty in this country, and I would like to see as a result of this terrible tragedy, our state and federal governments and its administrations be held accountable, by the American people for the influence American History, as taught to America’s children, in America’s schools, have on our youth.

The real threat of terrorism to America comes from within our borders not outside of it.  We are our greatest enemy, and it is reflective in our laws, and in the way that we treat our fellow man.  It is reflective in how we show compassion, love and tolerance towards each other on a daily basis, not only after a mass murder takes place.

 

 

Newspaper Articles: Women Lynched In America Part 2


The Seattle Republican., May 22, 1903, Image 4
About The Seattle Republican. (Seattle, Wash.) 1???-1915

 

The Seattle Republican. (Seattle, Wash.), 22 May 1903. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84025811/1903-05-22/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

The Tulsa star., January 16, 1915, Image 1
About The Tulsa star. (Tulsa, Okla.) 1913-1921

(Booker T. Washington)

 

The Tulsa star. (Tulsa, Okla.), 16 Jan. 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86064118/1915-01-16/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

The Ocala evening star., March 21, 1907, Page Page [One], Image 1
About The Ocala evening star. (Ocala, Fla.) 1895-1943

 

The Ocala evening star. (Ocala, Fla.), 21 March 1907. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84027621/1907-03-21/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Cayton’s weekly., May 17, 1919, Image 2
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

 

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 17 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-05-17/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The Monett times., November 12, 1909, Image 1
About The Monett times. (Monett, Mo.) 1899-1939

 

The Monett times. (Monett, Mo.), 12 Nov. 1909. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90061308/1909-11-12/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Cayton’s weekly., August 23, 1919, Image 1
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

 

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 23 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-08-23/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Cayton’s weekly., August 23, 1919, Image 2
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

 

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 23 Aug. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-08-23/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The Nebraska advertiser., May 01, 1903, Image 3
About The Nebraska advertiser. (Nemaha City, Neb.) 18??-1909

 

The Nebraska advertiser. (Nemaha City, Neb.), 01 May 1903. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/2010270508/1903-05-01/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Daily capital journal., May 20, 1905, Page 8, Image 8
About Daily capital journal. (Salem, Or.) 1903-1919

Daily capital journal. (Salem, Or.), 20 May 1905. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn99063957/1905-05-20/ed-1/seq-8/>

 

Weekly journal-miner., January 20, 1909, Image 1
About Weekly journal-miner. (Prescott, Ariz.) 1908-1929

 

Weekly journal-miner. (Prescott, Ariz.), 20 Jan. 1909. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032923/1909-01-20/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

 

Hopkinsville Kentuckian., January 19, 1915, Image 1
About Hopkinsville Kentuckian. (Hopkinsville, Ky.) 1889-1918

 

Hopkinsville Kentuckian. (Hopkinsville, Ky.), 19 Jan. 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86069395/1915-01-19/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

The Bismarck tribune., January 19, 1922, Image 4
About The Bismarck tribune. (Bismarck, N.D.) 1916-current

 

The Bismarck tribune. (Bismarck, N.D.), 19 Jan. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042243/1922-01-19/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

The Bemidji daily pioneer., March 23, 1907, Image 3
About The Bemidji daily pioneer. (Bemidji, Minn.) 1904-1971

 

The Bemidji daily pioneer. (Bemidji, Minn.), 23 March 1907. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063381/1907-03-23/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

The Adair County news., July 04, 1917, Page 6, Image 6
About The Adair County news. (Columbia, Ky.) 1897-1987

 

The Adair County news. (Columbia, Ky.), 04 July 1917. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86069496/1917-07-04/ed-1/seq-6/>

 

 

The Bamberg herald., December 05, 1912, Page 3, Image 3
About The Bamberg herald. (Bamberg, S.C.) 1891-1972

 

The Bamberg herald. (Bamberg, S.C.), 05 Dec. 1912. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063790/1912-12-05/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Cayton’s weekly., September 20, 1919, Image 3
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 20 Sept. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-09-20/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

The Coconino sun [microform]., May 16, 1919, Page Page Three, Image 3
About The Coconino sun [microform]. (Flagstaff, Ariz.) 1898-197?

 

The Coconino sun [microform]. (Flagstaff, Ariz.), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87062055/1919-05-16/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Evening star., May 02, 1919, Page 12, Image 12
About Evening star. (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972

 

Evening star. (Washington, D.C.), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1919-05-02/ed-1/seq-12/>

 

Cayton’s weekly., January 17, 1920, Image 2
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

 

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 17 Jan. 1920. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1920-01-17/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

Cayton’s weekly., January 12, 1918, Image 1
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

 

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 12 Jan. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1918-01-12/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

 

New-York tribune., April 25, 1903, Page 3, Image 3
About New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924

 

New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]), 25 April 1903. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1903-04-25/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Mrs. Grundy., April 30, 1903, Image 2
About Mrs. Grundy. (Tracy City, Tenn.) 1903-1930

 

Mrs. Grundy. (Tracy City, Tenn.), 30 April 1903. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89058318/1903-04-30/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The daily herald., April 25, 1895, Image 2
About The daily herald. (Brownsville, Tex.) 1892-1897

 

The daily herald. (Brownsville, Tex.), 25 April 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86089174/1895-04-25/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The commoner., July 24, 1903, Page 7, Image 7
About The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.) 1901-1923

 

The commoner. (Lincoln, Neb.), 24 July 1903. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/46032385/1903-07-24/ed-1/seq-7/>

 

 

The Kansas City sun., October 25, 1919, Image 1
About The Kansas City sun. (Kansas City, Mo.) 1908-1924

 

The Kansas City sun. (Kansas City, Mo.), 25 Oct. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90061556/1919-10-25/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

 

The Roanoke times., May 13, 1897, Page 8, Image 8
About The Roanoke times. (Roanoke, Va.) 1897-1977

 

The Roanoke times. (Roanoke, Va.), 13 May 1897. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn95079490/1897-05-13/ed-1/seq-8/>

 

 

Dearborn independent., June 18, 1921, Page 13, Image 13
About Dearborn independent. (Dearborn, Mich.) 1901-1927

 

Dearborn independent. (Dearborn, Mich.), 18 June 1921. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/2013218776/1921-06-18/ed-1/seq-13/>

 

 

The daily enterprise., June 26, 1884, Image 4
About The daily enterprise. (Livingston, Mont.) 1883-1884

 

The daily enterprise. (Livingston, Mont.), 26 June 1884. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85053382/1884-06-26/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

The colored American., August 17, 1901, Page 4, Image 4
About The colored American. (Washington, D.C.) 1893-19??

 

The colored American. (Washington, D.C.), 17 Aug. 1901. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83027091/1901-08-17/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

Richmond planet., April 27, 1895, Image 2
About Richmond planet. (Richmond, Va.) 1883-1938

 

 

Richmond planet. (Richmond, Va.), 27 April 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84025841/1895-04-27/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The Spokane press., October 19, 1909, Page 6, Image 6
About The Spokane press. (Spokane, Wash.) 1902-1939

 

 

The Spokane press. (Spokane, Wash.), 19 Oct. 1909. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085947/1909-10-19/ed-1/seq-6/>

 

 

Willmar tribune., May 18, 1897, Image 2
About Willmar tribune. (Willmar, Minn.) 1895-1931

 

 

Willmar tribune. (Willmar, Minn.), 18 May 1897. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89081022/1897-05-18/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

Historical Newspaper Articles of Women Lynched in America Part 1


 

Cayton’s weekly., January 12, 1918, Image 1
About Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.) 1916-1921

Library of Congress

Cayton’s weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 12 Jan. 1918. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1918-01-12/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

The Langston City herald., August 24, 1895, Image 1
About The Langston City herald. (Langston City, O.T. [Okla.]) 1891-1902

The Langston City herald. (Langston City, O.T. [Okla.]), 24 Aug. 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025050/1895-08-24/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

The Seattle Republican., May 23, 1902, Image 4
About The Seattle Republican. (Seattle, Wash.) 1???-1915

 

The Seattle Republican. (Seattle, Wash.), 23 May 1902. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84025811/1902-05-23/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

Cameron County press., January 19, 1899, Page 2, Image 2
About Cameron County press. (Emporium, Cameron County, Pa.) 1866-1922

 

Cameron County press. (Emporium, Cameron County, Pa.), 19 Jan. 1899. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83032040/1899-01-19/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The Worthington advance., January 12, 1899, Image 2
About The Worthington advance. (Worthington, Minn.) 1874-1908

 

The Worthington advance. (Worthington, Minn.), 12 Jan. 1899. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85025620/1899-01-12/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The evening times., July 28, 1899, Page 3, Image 3
About The evening times. (Washington, D.C.) 1895-1902

The evening times. (Washington, D.C.), 28 July 1899. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024441/1899-07-28/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Orleans County monitor., August 26, 1895, Image 2
About Orleans County monitor. (Barton, Vt.) 1872-1953

 

Orleans County monitor. (Barton, Vt.), 26 Aug. 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84022871/1895-08-26/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

Potosi journal., January 11, 1899, Image 2
About Potosi journal. (Potosi, Mo.) 1894-1929

 

Potosi journal. (Potosi, Mo.), 11 Jan. 1899. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90061371/1899-01-11/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The San Francisco call., August 12, 1895, Page 2, Image 2
About The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913

 

The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]), 12 Aug. 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/1895-08-12/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The evening world., January 27, 1894, BROOKLYN LAST EDITION, Page 4, Image 4
About The evening world. (New York, N.Y.) 1887-1931

 

The evening world. (New York, N.Y.), 27 Jan. 1894. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030193/1894-01-27/ed-2/seq-4/>

 

 

Watauga Democrat., July 25, 1895, Image 1
About Watauga Democrat. (Boone, Watauga County, N.C.) 1888-current

Watauga Democrat. (Boone, Watauga County, N.C.), 25 July 1895. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82007642/1895-07-25/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Fergus County Democrat., February 05, 1907, Image 2
About Fergus County Democrat. (Lewistown, Mont.) 1904-1919

Fergus County Democrat. (Lewistown, Mont.), 05 Feb. 1907. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84036220/1907-02-05/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The Appeal, December 23, 1922, Image 2
About The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn. ) 1889-19??

 

The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn.) 23 Dec. 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016810/1922-12-23/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

Arizona republican., March 16, 1894, Page 2, Image 2
About Arizona republican. (Phoenix, Ariz.) 1890-1930

 

Arizona republican. (Phoenix, Ariz.), 16 March 1894. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84020558/1894-03-16/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The Salt Lake herald., August 16, 1898, Page 4, Image 5
About The Salt Lake herald. (Salt Lake City [Utah) 1870-1909

 

The Salt Lake herald. (Salt Lake City [Utah), 16 Aug. 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85058130/1898-08-16/ed-1/seq-5/>

 

Alexandria gazette., August 02, 1894, Image 2
About Alexandria gazette. (Alexandria, D.C.) 1834-1974

 

Alexandria gazette. (Alexandria, D.C.), 02 Aug. 1894. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85025007/1894-08-02/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

Richmond times-dispatch., June 02, 1915, Page SIX, Image 6
About Richmond times-dispatch. (Richmond, Va.) 1914-current

 

Richmond times-dispatch. (Richmond, Va.), 02 June 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045389/1915-06-02/ed-1/seq-6/>

 

Peninsula enterprise., July 07, 1906, Image 3
About Peninsula enterprise. (Accomac, Va.) 1881-1965

 

Peninsula enterprise. (Accomac, Va.), 07 July 1906. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn94060041/1906-07-07/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Peninsula enterprise., July 07, 1906, Image 3
About Peninsula enterprise. (Accomac, Va.) 1881-1965

 

Peninsula enterprise. (Accomac, Va.), 07 July 1906. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn94060041/1906-07-07/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

Staunton spectator., August 08, 1894, Image 3
About Staunton spectator. (Staunton, Va.) 1849-1896

 

Staunton spectator. (Staunton, Va.), 08 Aug. 1894. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84024718/1894-08-08/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

 

The times., May 21, 1899, Image 1
About The times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1897-1901

 

The times. (Washington [D.C.]), 21 May 1899. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85054468/1899-05-21/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

 

The pioneer express., August 19, 1898, Image 2
About The pioneer express. (Pembina, Dakota [N.D.]) 1883-1928

 

The pioneer express. (Pembina, Dakota [N.D.]), 19 Aug. 1898. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88076741/1898-08-19/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

a farmers’ leader., August 09, 1901, Image 3
About Dakota farmers’ leader. (Canton, S.D.) 1890-19??

 

Dakota farmers’ leader. (Canton, S.D.), 09 Aug. 1901. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn00065127/1901-08-09/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

 

The true northerner., May 19, 1897, Image 2
About The true northerner. (Paw Paw, Mich.) 1855-1920

 

The true northerner. (Paw Paw, Mich.), 19 May 1897. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85033781/1897-05-19/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

The weekly picket., March 22, 1907, Image 3
About The weekly picket. (Canton, Miss.) 1894-19??

 

The weekly picket. (Canton, Miss.), 22 March 1907. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86074081/1907-03-22/ed-1/seq-3/>

 

 

The Challis messenger., January 01, 1919, Image 6
About The Challis messenger. (Challis, Idaho) 1912-current

 

The Challis messenger. (Challis, Idaho), 01 Jan. 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88056159/1919-01-01/ed-1/seq-6/>

 

The Appeal, July 25, 1914 Image 2
About The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn.  1889-19??

 

The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn.) 25 July 1914. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016810/1914-07-25/ed-1/seq-2/>

 

 

The interior journal., June 19, 1917, Image 1
About The interior journal. (Stanford, Ky.) 1912-1984

 

The interior journal. (Stanford, Ky.), 19 June 1917. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85052023/1917-06-19/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

The Hartford republican., August 23, 1901, Image 1
About The Hartford republican. (Hartford, Ky.) 18??-1926

 

The Hartford republican. (Hartford, Ky.), 23 Aug. 1901. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86069313/1901-08-23/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Albuquerque morning journal., January 16, 1915, Page FOUR, Image 4
About Albuquerque morning journal. (Albuquerque, N.M.) 1903-1926

 

Albuquerque morning journal. (Albuquerque, N.M.), 16 Jan. 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84031081/1915-01-16/ed-1/seq-4/>

 

The Daily Ardmoreite., May 03, 1919, Image 1
About The Daily Ardmoreite. (Ardmore, Okla.) 1893-current

 

The Daily Ardmoreite. (Ardmore, Okla.), 03 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042303/1919-05-03/ed-1/seq-1/>

 

Harrisburg telegraph., May 02, 1919, Page 5, Image 5
About Harrisburg telegraph. (Harrisburg, Pa.) 1879-1948

 

Harrisburg telegraph. (Harrisburg, Pa.), 02 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85038411/1919-05-02/ed-1/seq-5/>

 

The Seattle star., May 16, 1919, Image 13
About The Seattle star. (Seattle, Wash.) 1899-1947

 

The Seattle star. (Seattle, Wash.), 16 May 1919. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093407/1919-05-16/ed-1/seq-13/>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FREEDMAN’S COTTAGES IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA: JENKINS FAMILY HISTORY


FREEDMAN’S COTTAGES IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA: JENKINS FAMILY HISTORY.

Gentrification Displaces Black Residents in the City of Charleston, South Carolina


Gentrification Displaces Black Residents In the City of Charleston, South Carolina

I Was born in Charleston, South Carolina, and upon returning to Charleston in 2011,  I realized that the East side of town, which was predominantly black, is now occupied by a large percentage of white residents.

http://www.charlestoncitypaper.com/charleston/gentrification-breaks-a-neighborhood-down-from-the-inside-out/Content?oid=4615103.

http://www.thedigitel.com/arts-culture/gentrification-and-charlestons-shrinking-black-pop-35468-1118, http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/81623

I wondered what had happened to all of the black folks who owned or rented homes downtown.  Where do those displaced by whites now live?  Do they still live near the city?  Are they prospering and benefiting financially from the influx of tourism into the city, in ways other than working as housekeepers, bellmen, and servers in downtown hotels?

The look of downtown Charleston is totally different now since many of the homes have either been gutted and rebuilt, replaced by new construction, or renovated.  With structural upgrades, the fair market value of homes in areas once considered “poor and bad areas to live in,” or the ghetto, has increased with the presence of white residents, making it difficult for many blacks to continue to rent in the city, or to pay the higher taxes.

http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20110329/PC06/303299919

The City of Charleston has progressively grown in population and in the amount of businesses represented in the city.  Lower King Street has awakened from the dead with its streets lined with bars, restaurants, and the construction of the new hotels.  With the construction of new hotels on King street, businesses located on King Street will draw tourists who want the convenience of lodging in the heart of the city where the nightlife kicks off.

My question is, what is the percentage of blacks that have benefited from this economic growth? While the bold and vibrant colors painted on the renovated and newly constructed homes stand out as a proud representation of our community.  Do visitors to our city have the choice of patronizing a racially diverse group of business owners who represent the community?

http://www.psmag.com/navigation/business-economics/burgh-disapora/gentrification-not-about-race-and-class-64632/

http://www.charlestoncitypaper.com/charleston/will-the-midtown-redevelopment-be-a-nail-in-the-coffin-for-the-eastside/Content?oid=4126491

People native to Charleston who drive down streets like Huger Street, where I once lived, near Stuart Street, or Reid, Lee, and America Streets are no doubt as amazed as I am to see that once dilapidated houses in those areas have gotten a face lift.  While driving on the cross-town, visitors to the city see the beautiful colors of the houses off Carolina Street which draws attention to that neighborhood in an inviting manner, and people are relocating to Charleston in large numbers.

http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20140206/PC16/140209607

Because of the influx of people moving here, blacks who once lived on the East side of town, in homes that are within walking distance to schools, the aquarium, and government organizations, appear less in number while the population of whites walking downtown to work and entertainment and riding their bikes along bike paths, has increased.

Whites are now the predominant occupants of neighborhoods that were once stereotyped as “bad areas” to live in and ones labeled unsafe for them to walk in alone, especially at night.  But now you see whites walking in those once stereotyped “bad areas” all the time…and at night!  Those neighborhoods are now apparently safer since black residents have been replaced by a majority white presence.

http://www.crda.org/business/county_city_profiles/charleston_county.html

It is apparent that blacks are not prospering to a degree that they can afford to remain living in their neighborhoods once white people began to move in, and it appears that they are being pushed further North.  And blacks who have moved to the north area in locations that are considered run down and unsafe to travel by whites will be able to live in those areas until those neighborhoods are needed for the continued influx of new residents to Charleston.  It is already the case that white folks not able to live in the tightly meshed downtown area have begun to migrate North of the city.

I had hoped to see more integration in neighborhoods where blacks lived in the downtown area instead of gentrification.  There are black folks who had worked and lived downtown for the majority of their lives, and they still did not earn incomes comparable to whites on a large scale that afforded them the right to remain in those residences.

Because of income disparities, it places them in a position in which they can’t afford to remain in their neighborhoods with an influx of rents and taxes.  Unfortunately the growth that is taking place in Charleston is a story much like that of Harlem and the forced plight of blacks once Bill Clinton moved there. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/nyregion/thecity/27harl.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

http://www.nysun.com/new-york/harlem-residents-clinton-is-symbol/36435/.

The City of Charleston has grown into a City where more and more tourists are visiting from around the world, and that is an honor.  For the past three years the city has been the Conde Nast Traveler’s top tourist destination.  Not only is it an honor for the city, but for its mayor as well.   Mayor Riley is a fine person, but other than affordable housing for people relocating to this area, because many people who are from Charleston do not make enough to afford the affordable housing, the question remains.

Are black people being given an opportunity to earn a fair share of the economic pie?  Are black business owners given a fair opportunity to compete with white business owners?  Are they able to secure loans in which they can open businesses in key areas downtown where tourists frequent? http://www.cntraveler.com/daily-traveler/2013/10/charleston-south-carolina-number-one-city-in-the-united-states

Other than Taxi Cab Drivers, what is the percentage of black owned businesses in the downtown area in view of tourist traffic?  How many bars are black owned?  How many hotels?  How many black owned restaurants are on East Bay Street?  How many black owned businesses are on Market Street?

http://www.charlestonchronicle.net/64663/2152/new-app-finds-blackowned-businesses

It is unfortunate that blacks by large are not in a position to benefit financially through business ventures and the ownership of businesses in key geographical locations in the City of Charleston where an influx of tourism into the city produces wealth.  While there are a minority of blacks doing well financially in the City, blacks as a majority work minimum wage, or slightly above minimum wage type jobs.

Being the great historic city that Charleston is, it is unfortunate that little has changed over time when considering the distribution of wealth for blacks as compared to whites.  Is it the case that there a few blacks hand picked to represent the City, or is there a fair opportunity for inclusion?

http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20110329/PC06/303299919

I once drove a taxi in the City of Charleston and I would hear all the time how tourists love the people of Charleston.  As a woman native to Charleston, I was proud to hear that.  The people of Charleston are indeed accommodating, polite, hospitable, and most are genuine in their expressions of love towards people.  http://www.cntraveler.com/daily-traveler/2013/07/travel-us-cities-charleston-newark-branson-friendly-unfriendly_slideshow_item9_10

How do those compliments stack up in dollars and cents?  How do they stack up in earned income for blacks who clean, prep, cook, and sing songs for tourists in sweet shops to help keep the tourist industry booming?  I am referring to the service workers.  I would argue that it is their pictures that should be on the Carta Buses.  After all, they represent in greater numbers the cheap labor that keeps the streets clean, the horse manure scrapped up, and hotel lobbies sparkling.

It is the cheap labor provided by blacks educated in a school system in the South that provides just enough education to keep that labor pool of workers stocked and available for hire.  Good food, crisp linen, white towels and clean dishes and silverware.  That’s what tourists remember most about traveling.  And those services come from the back of the house.

http://www.cntraveler.com/readers-choice-awards/united-states/best-hotels-charleston-photos

This Blog was written with black folk in mind who are native to the City.  Those persons who have lived in Charleston their entire lives and have worked jobs that do not afford them the opportunity to eat in restaurants where they work let alone live downtown close to their jobs.

PRIMARY SOURCES:HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS


CATALOG SOURCE

HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

STANFORD, CALIFORNIA  94305 – 6004

Contact Administrator: Available Documents For Reference Use Only

1966

1.

LETTER FROM:

“JOHN F. DAVIS

OFFICE OF THE CLERK

BY MICHAEL RODAK JR.

DEPUTY CLERK

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

WASHINGTON, D. C.  20543

MARCH 8, 1966”

TO:

“MR. HUEY P. NEWTON

881- 47 TH STREET

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA

RE:   NEWTON v. CALIFORNIA”

“ORDER EXTENDING TIME TO FILE PETITION FOR WRIT OF CERTIORARI”

“APRIL 10, 1966″

M864 BOX 27 FOLDER 7 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

2.

LETTER FROM:

” JOHN F. DAVIS

OFFICE OF THE CLERK

E. C. SCHADE ASSISTANT

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

WASHINGTON, D. C.  20543

APRIL 12, 1966″

RE:  NEWTON v. CALIFORNIA

TO:

HUEY P. NEWTON

881 47TH STREET

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA ”

M864 BOX 27 FOLDER 7 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

1968

1.

“PAGE 4 SECTION A ** JULY 28, 1968 S. F. SUNDAY EXAMINER & CHRONICLE”

“BLACK – WHITE SOCIETY”

“FRUSTRATIONS OF OAKLAND MAYOR”

“BY FRANK PIAZZI, EAST BAY BUREAU”

HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS BOX 49 FOLDER 5

2.

“3/4/1968

“PERSONAL ATTENTION”

“SECRET FBI MEMORANDUM ON THE BLACK LIBERATION MOVEMENT”  (4 PAGES)

“FROM DIRECTOR, FBI

COUNTER INTELLIGENCE  PROGRAM (COINTELPRO)

GOALS”

HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS M864 BOX 5 FOLDER 1

3.

LETTER:

OCTOBER 4, 1968

“TO CHARLES GARY FROM EILEEN GRAMPP, IN APPRECIATION FOR EFFORTS ON BEHALF OF HUEY NEWTON”WORK .”

M864 BOX 28 FOLDER 6  HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

4.

“RECEIVED AUG 16 1968”

LETTER TO CHARLES GARY

“DEAR NIGGER LOVER”

“KKK”

HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS M864 BOX 11 FOLDER 10

5.

LETTER ..

MARCH

“DEAR HUEY FROM GABRIELA FERNANDEZ”

M864 BOX 11 FOLDER 8  HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

6.

LETTER “SEPTEMBER 20, 1968”

FROM:

“LAW OFFICES”

SCHEINMAN & SCHEINMAN

NORMAN L. SCHEINMAN OF COUNSEL”

TO:

“MR. CHARLES R. GARY

341 MARKET STREET

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA”

“RE: CONGRATULATIONS ON THE NEWTON CASE”

M864 BOX 27 FOLDER 7 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

1969

1.

“OFFICE MEMORANDUM ***UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT”

“TO SAC, LOS ANGELES (157-1618) DATE 7/11/69”

“SUBJECT BLACK PANTHER PARTY RACIAL MATTERS”

M864HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS BOX 5 FOLDER 1

2.

“7/2/69 MEMORANDUM  TO: SAC, SAN FRANCISCO”

“FROM: SAC, CHICAGO (100 – 40903-SUB J)”

“SUBJECT STUDENTS FOR A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (SDS) IS – SDS OD:CG”

M864 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION BOX 5 FOLDER 1

1970

1.

“5/11/70  SAC, SAN FRANCISCO, COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS (RESEARCH SECTION)”

“THE BUREAU WOULD LIKE TO OFFER FOR YOUR CONSIDERATION A PROPOSAL FOR A DISRUPTIVE-DISINFORMATION OPERATION TARGETED AGAINST THE NATIONAL OFFICE OF THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY (BBP).” pp 102, 104.

M864 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION RECORDS BOX 36 FOLDER 1

2.

“NOVEMBER 8, 1970, LETTER TO HUEY P. NEWTON’S LAWYER CHARLES GARY”

“…..UNITED STATES CITIZENS WILL NOT TOLERATE ANY OF YOUR TACTICS WE ARE SICK AND TIRED OF IT- SO JUST TAKE IT EASY – AND IF YOU DON’T WATCH OUT.”

M864 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS BOX 28 FOLDER 4

1972

1.

LETTER

“CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES”

“HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES”

“WASHINGTON, D. C. 20515”

“MAY 5, 1972”

TO: “HUEY P. NEWTON”

FROM: “CHARLES B. RANGEL”

“MEMBER OF CONGRESS”

M864 BOX 1 FOLDER 2 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

2.

LETTER “APRIL 17, 1972”

TO:

“HUEY P. NEWTON

SERVANT OF THE PEOPLE

CENTRAL COMMITTEE

BLACK PANTHER PARTY

1048 PERALTA STREET

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA  94607”

FROM:

“HONORABLE ROBERT  N. C. NIX

U.S. CONGRESSMAN

SECOND DISTRICT, PENNSYLVANIA

CUSTOMS HOUSE

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA  19106”

M864 BOX 1 FOLDER 2 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS

3.

LETTER “MAY 31, 1972″

CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

WASHINGTON D. C.  20515

LOUIS STOKES

MEMBER OF CONGRESS”

TO:

“HUEY P. NEWTON

SERVANT OF THE PEOPLE”

“RE: THE BLACK PANTHER INTER-COMMUNAL NEWS SERVICE: A SURVIVAL PROGRAM IN CONGRESS”

M864 BOX 1 FOLDER 2 HUEY P. NEWTON FOUNDATION PAPERS